As the wide body fleet arrived a new naming theme came to the fore, these new aircraft would be named after notable and famous Scottish people from ancient and recent history. Below is a small piece on each of those people and, of course, the registration of the aircraft too.
The Scottish People named on BCal's Aircraft
Alexander Fleming was born was born at Lochfield near Darvel in Ayrshire, England, on August 6, 1881, and studied medicine, serving as a physician during World War I.
Through research and experimentation, Fleming discovered a bacteria-destroying mould which he would call penicillin in 1928, paving the way for the use of antibiotics in modern healthcare.
He was knighted in 1944, awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945, and died on March 11, 1955.
Sir Alexander Fleming - The Scottish Challenger (DC10 G-BEBL)
Robert Burns - The Scottish Bard (DC10 G-BEBM)
Robert Burns was born on 25 January 1759 in the village of Alloway, two miles south of Ayr. His parents, William Burnes[s] and Agnes Broun, were tenant farmers but they ensured their son received a relatively good education and he began to read avidly. Hard physical labour on the family farm took its toll on the young Burns, who increasingly turned his attentions towards the passions of poetry.
At just 27, Burns had already become famous across the country with poems such as To a Louse, To a Mouse and The Cotter's Saturday Night. Collaboration with James Johnson led to a long-term involvement in The Scots Musical Museum, which included the likes of Auld Lang Syne. He died on 21 July 1796 aged just 37 and was buried with full civil and military honours.
David Livingstone was born at Blantyre, south of Glasgow on 19 March 1813. At 10 he began working in the local cotton mill, with school lessons in the evenings. In 1836, he began studying medicine and theology in Glasgow and decided to become a missionary doctor. In 1841, he was posted to the edge of the Kalahari Desert in southern Africa. In 1845, he married Mary Moffat, daughter of a fellow missionary.
Livingstone became convinced of his mission to reach new peoples in the interior of Africa and introduce them to Christianity, as well as freeing them from slavery. It was this which inspired his explorations. In 1849 and 1851, he travelled across the Kalahari, on the second trip sighting the upper Zambezi River. In 1852, he began a four year expedition to find a route from the upper Zambezi to the coast. This filled huge gaps in western knowledge of central and southern Africa. In 1855, Livingstone discovered a spectacular waterfall which he named 'Victoria Falls'. He reached the mouth of the Zambezi on the Indian Ocean in May 1856, becoming the first European to cross the width of southern Africa.
At home, Livingstone publicised the horrors of the slave trade, securing private support for another expedition to central Africa, searching for the Nile's source and reporting further on slavery. This expedition lasted from 1866 until Livingstone's death in 1873. After nothing was heard from him for many months, Henry Stanley, an explorer and journalist, set out to find Livingstone. This resulted in their meeting near Lake Tanganyika in October 1871 during which Stanley uttered the famous phrase: 'Dr Livingstone I presume?' With new supplies from Stanley, Livingstone continued his efforts to find the source of the Nile. His health had been poor for many years and he died on 1 May 1873. His body was taken back to England and buried in Westminster Abbey.
David Livingstone - The Scottish Explorer (DC10 G-BFGI)
James Watt was born in Greenock on 18 January 1736. His father was a prosperous shipwright. Watt initially worked as a maker of mathematical instruments, but soon became interested in steam engines.
The first working steam engine had been patented in 1698 and by the time of Watt's birth, Newcomen engines were pumping water from mines all over the country. In around 1764, Watt was given a model Newcomen engine to repair. He realised that it was hopelessly inefficient and began to work to improve the design. He designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented enormous losses of steam. His first patent in 1769 covered this device and other improvements on Newcomen's engine.
In 1775 Watt's partner and backer was Matthew Boulton who owned an engineering works in Birmingham. Together he and Watt began to manufacture steam engines. Boulton & Watt became the most important engineering firm in the country, meeting considerable demand. Initially this came from Cornish mine owners, but extended to paper, flour, cotton and iron mills, as well as distilleries, canals and waterworks. In 1785, Watt and Boulton were elected fellows of the Royal Society. By 1790, Watt was a wealthy man and in 1800 he retired and devoted himself entirely to research work. He patented several other important inventions including the rotary engine, the double-action engine and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure inside the engine.
Watt died on 19 August 1819. A unit of measurement of electrical and mechanical power - the watt - is named in his honour.
James Watt - The Scottish Engineer (DC10 G-BGAT)
Scott was a poet, novelist, ballad-collector, critic and man of letters, but is probably most renowned as the founder of the genre of the historical novel, involving tales of gallantry, romance and chivalry. Beginning with the publication of Waverley in 1814, one of the most significant books of the nineteenth-century, his anonymously published Waverley novels proved hugely popular in Europe and America, and established his reputation as a major international literary force. It is a measure of Scottís influences that Edinburgh's central railway station, opened in 1854, is called Waverley Station.
Scott spent his childhood years in Edinburgh. At 25 he began writing, first translating works from German then moving on to poetry. In 1797 he married the daughter of a French refugee, Charlotte Carpenter, with whom he had four children. Five years later, he published a three-volume set of collected Scottish ballads, The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Borders. This was an early indicator of his interest in Scotland and history from a literary standpoint.
By the 1820s, Scott was probably the most famous of living Scotsmen. Though In 1825, his financial state deteriorated drastically, and rather than declare bankruptcy he placed his home, Abbotsford, and income into a trust belonging to his creditors, and proceeded to write his way out of debt. He continued to live at Abbotsford near Melrose, where he died on the 21st September 1832.
Sir Walter Scott - The Scottish Novelist (DC10 G-BHDH)
Robert The Bruce - The Scottish Warrior (DC10 G-BHDI)
Robert was born on 11 July 1274 into an aristocratic Scottish family. Through his father he was distantly related to the Scottish royal family. His mother had Gaelic antecedents. Bruce's grandfather was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during a succession dispute in 1290 - 1292. The English king, Edward I, was asked to arbitrate and chose John Balliol to be king. Both Bruce and his father refused to back Balliol and supported Edward I's invasion of Scotland in 1296 to force Balliol to abdicate. Edward then ruled Scotland as a province of England.
Robert waged a highly successful guerrilla war against the English. At the Battle of Bannockburn in June 1314, he defeated a much larger English army under Edward II, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish monarchy. Two years later, his brother Edward Bruce was inaugurated as high king of Ireland but was killed in battle in 1318. Even after Bannockburn and the Scottish capture of Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to give up his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish earls, barons and the 'community of the realm' sent a letter to Pope John XXII declaring that Robert was their rightful monarch. This was the 'Declaration of Arbroath' and it asserted the antiquity of the Scottish people and their monarchy.
Four years later, Robert received papal recognition as king of an independent Scotland. The Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil, by which the Scots were obliged to make war on England should hostilities break out between England and France. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son and peace was made with Scotland. Robert died on 7 June 1329. He was buried at Dunfermline. He requested that his heart be taken to the Holy Land, but it only got as far as Spain. It was returned to Scotland and buried in Melrose Abbey.
James S. McDonnell - The Scottish-American Aviation Pioneer (DC10 G-BHDJ)
James Smith McDonnell was born in Denver, Colo., April 9, 1899 and he graduated from Little Rock High School in 1917, just as World War I broke out. McDonnell served briefly as a private in the Army and then attended Princeton University, from which he graduated with honours in physics in 1921. While in college, he joined the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC).
After Princeton, he enrolled at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for graduate studies in aeronautical engineering. While still at MIT, he continued his ROTC affiliation. He graduated from MIT in 1925.
After earning his pilot's wings, he spent the next 10 years working for several aircraft companies, finally as a chief engineer with the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Co. McDonnell resigned from Martin in 1938, determined to form his own company. On July 6, 1939, he incorporated the McDonnell Aircraft Corp. in St. Louis, Missouri. The company became the leading producer of jet fighters and would build the first spacecraft to carry an American into orbit. By the mid-1960s, McDonnell Aircraft Corp. was the largest employer in Missouri, and in 1967, it expanded its operation by merging with the largest employer in California, the Douglas Aircraft Co.
James S. McDonnell took over as chairman and chief executive officer of the McDonnell Douglas Corp. In 1971, his nephew, Sanford N. McDonnell, became president, and James S. McDonnell was chairman of the board and chief executive officer. His nephew took over as CEO in 1972. James Smith McDonnell remained chairman of the board of directors until his death on Aug. 22, 1980.
Flora MacDonald - The Scottish Heroine (DC10 G-BHDJ)
Flora MacDonald famously helped "Bonnie" Prince Charlie (Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender) escape from the Isle of Uist to Skye. The prince had fled following defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.
Charles had been on the run for two months before he met Flora. Both her fiancť Allan MacDonald and her foster-father, Captain Hugh MacDonald of Sleat, were 'Red-Coats' (members of King George's forces) and apparently Flora was unwilling to help until she was told the escape plan had actually been made by her step father and agreed to help.
The Prince was disguised as Flora's 'Irish Maid' - 'Betty Burke' and they made the famous journey by rowing boat to Skye evading capture on the way and eventually landing between Uig and Mogstad in Kilmuir, at what is now called Rudha Phrionnsa (Prince's Point). Flora then aided the Prince in his escape to Portree where they parted company never to meet again. From here on Stuart was able to obtain passage to France and successfully escaped.
Flora was arrested for her part in the escape, and imprisoned at Dunstaffnage Castle, Oban and briefly in the Tower of London, she was released in 1747. Flora MacDonald died on 4th March 1790, her death was deeply mourned by the people of Skye and following a large funeral she was buried at Kilmuir in a sheet in which Bonnie Prince Charlie had slept as her shroud.
Ian Ritchie - The Caledonian Airline Executive (DC10 G-MULL)
Ian Ritchie joined Caledonian Airways in 1965 when he was poached by Adam Thomson from British Eagle. Ian was Eagleís Manager for Scotland and Northern Ireland and Caledonianís expanding demand in Scotland needed a good man. Ian worked hard and was soon noticed and he was brought down to Gatwick as General Sales Manager.
Ian was pivotal in developing Caledonianís successful trans-Atlantic charter markets across the USA and Canada. He was also hugely instrumental in opening up the Far East services to Kuala Lumpur and Singapore with the Far East Travel Centre tour firm. Along with Frank Hope, Ian secured the extremely valuable long-term contract to carry immigrants on behalf of Qantas from Europe to Australia. Now promoted to Executive Director (Sales) Ian accompanied Thomson and on many promotional trips to the USA for Caledonian.
With BCal, Ian masterminded the £3million Roar-In campaign that supported the start of scheduled services to the US in 1972 and he was promoted to Marketing Director late in 1972 after the success of that campaign. Ianís role developed and he would lead a new team dealing with External, Government and Industry Affairs. This saw him work on new aircraft purchases, licence and route applications and planning for new aircraft introduction including the DC10, A310 and also planning for the A320.
The challenges faced by BCal with BA privatisation looming also fell within his remit and this took up a lot of time in the mid-1980s as well as the important work of gaining approval of the new routes to Hong Kong and Dubai.
Note - the last DC10, G-NIUK, was never named
Ian was taken ill at work in January 1984 while working on an article for the A320, though stabilised at Gatwick he had a relapse in hospital and passed away. Thomson remembered Ian as a fiercely loyal friend and colleague who had been with him for just on 20 years and one who always put the airlineís interestís first.
Tony Cocklin remembers Ian as "a top-class sales director - a great leader who set very high standards at every level, from sales/commercial performance to personal appearance. Everyone working with him, for instance, was always required to be dressed impeccably in suit and tie. He ran his departments (and by extension the commercial/corporate side of airline as a whole) almost along military lines: smart, efficient, strategic and effective. That said, he was also a very caring person, immensely loyal and supportive to those under him. I worked on many interesting projects and had some very enjoyable times with him. Ian was a well-known and highly-respected figure in the international travel and tourism industry. Particularly, he made a major contribution to the International Air Transport Association (IATA)".